Bio-mordants: a review


Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.31, no.14, pp.20714-20771, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 31 Issue: 14
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-024-32174-8
  • Journal Name: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.20714-20771
  • Keywords: Bio-mordant, Eco-friendly, Green production, Natural dyeing, Sustainability
  • Kayseri University Affiliated: Yes


Due to the increasing pressure on environmentally friendly approaches and sustainable production processes, the textile dyeing industry has focused on natural colorants. Thus, the use of bio-mordants, which are biological materials, has become widespread as an alternative to metal salts, most of which are non-ecological, used in the application processes of natural colorants. In natural dyeing, dyers want to use mordant substances in the dyeing processes in order to both expand the color spectrum and improve the fastness properties. Conventional metal salts used in natural dyeing are made up of metallic ions, which, when released into the environment as wastewater effluent at the end of the dyeing process, cause major damage to the ecosystem. Many researchers have thought about using mordants derived from natural sources to address the environmental problem. This article is a review of the investigation of natural mordants used instead of metallic mordants in the process of coloring various textile materials with natural dyestuff sources. It has been determined that many substances, most of them herbal materials, are used as mordants. In this review, mordants, except for conventional metal salts, are examined under three main groups for a better understanding. These groups are as follows: (i) natural or bio-mordants, (ii) oil mordants, and (iii) new-generation and non-vegetable-based mordants. Here, researchers will find an overview of the most recent developments in green mordants as well as application techniques for a variety of mordants.