© 2022, The Author(s) under exclusive licence to Japanese Society for Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology.Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the mandibular bone structures of multiple myeloma (MM) patients on panoramic radiographs using fractal analysis (FA) and radio-morphometric indices. Methods: The study group consisted of 67 MM patients, and the control group consisted of 67 individuals without any systemic disease. The mandibular cortical index (MCI) classification, antegonial index (AGI), gonial index (GI), mandibular cortical width (MCW), panoramic mandibular index (PMI) and fractal dimensions (FD) were evaluated on panoramic radiographs. FD measurements were made by identifying 4 related areas. Shapiro–Wilk test was used to determine the normal distribution of the data. Chi-square and independent t tests were used to compare the findings between the two groups. Results: The FD values of the study group in ROI1, ROI2, ROI3, ROI4 regions and GI values were found to be statistically significantly lower than the control group (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of AGI, MCW and PMI values (p > 0.05). While C1 was the most common type in the control group, C2 was the most common type in the study group. C2 and C3 were detected more in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study showed a consensus with the studies advocating that fractal analysis and radio-morphometric indices are methods that can be used to determine mandibular bone density. The low bone density of MM patients is a condition that physicians should be aware of for interventional dental procedures.