Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, vol.46, no.3, pp.525-534, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
© 2022 TUBITAK. All rights reserved.In this study, monensin (MON) was investigated for its apoptotic and genotoxic effects on chick liver tissue and cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on chick primary hepatocytes isolated from perfused liver tissue. Western blotting and real-time PCR (qPCR) were used to determine the apoptotic effect on primary hepatocytes and liver tissue, and the comet assay was used to determine the genotoxic effect on liver tissue. MON decreased cell viability in primary hepatocytes with increasing concentrations. When administered at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM, MON increased the levels of apoptotic p53, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and downregulated the expression of the antiapoptotic survivin, Bcl-xl, and Bcl-2 genes (p < 0.05). Furthermore, 100 and 125 ppm of MON increased caspase-3, caspase-9, and p53 protein levels, and downregulated Bcl-2 expression (p < 0.05). Bcl-xl gene expression was downregulated only in the group that received 125 ppm of MON (p < 0.05). Changes observed in the expression of the survivin gene were insignificant in both groups (p > 0.05). Moreover, 100 and 125 ppm of MON caused comet formation, which is a marker of genotoxicity, in the liver (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that MON induced apoptosis in both primary hepatocytes and liver tissue, and also caused genotoxicity in the liver tissue.