Medical Oncology, vol.39, no.3, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.Resveratrol possesses well-defined anti-carcinogenic activities. However, how resveratrol exerts its anti-leukemic actions by modulating anti-apoptotic ceramide catabolism enzymes, mainly sphingosine kinase (SK-1) and glucosylceramide synthase (GCS), in FLT3-ITD AML remains unclear. Resveratrol, SKI II (SK inhibitor) and PDMP (GCS inhibitor) were evaluated alone or in combinations for their effect on cell proliferation (MTT assay), apoptosis (annexin V-FITC/PI staining by flow cytometry) and cell cycle progression (PI staining by flow cytometry) in MOLM-13 and MV4-11 cells. The combination indexes (CIs) were calculated based on cell proliferation data using CompuSyn software. Caspase-3 and PARP activation, changes in SK-1 and GCS levels by resveratrol alone or PARP cleavage in co-treatments were determined by western blot. Resveratrol and inhibitors alone inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Resveratrol downregulated SK-1 and GCS expression in both cell lines. It induced apoptosis by phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure together with caspase-3 and PARP cleavage and arrested the cell cycle slightly at the S phase. Co-administrations intensified resveratrol’s effect by inhibiting cell proliferation synergistically (A CI of < 1) or additively (A CI 1.0–1.1) and inducing apoptosis via PS relocalization and PARP cleavage. Resveratrol plus SKI II did not affect cell cycle progression significantly, however, resveratrol plus PDMP blocked cycle progression at G0/G1 and S phases for MOLM-13 cells and MV4-11 cells, respectively. Overall, resveratrol may inhibit FLT3-ITD AML cell proliferation by inhibiting ceramide catabolism and be evaluated as a chemopreventive after detailed analysis of the crosstalk between resveratrol and ceramide catabolism pathway.