© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Acylglycerophosphate acyltransferases (AGPATs) are the rate-limiting enzymes for the de novo pathway of triacylglycerols (TAG) synthesis. Although AGPATs have been extensively explored by evolution, expression and functional studies, little is known on functional characterization of how many members of the AGPAT family are involved in TAG synthesis and their impact on the cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, 13 AGPAT genes in buffalo were identified, of which 12 AGPAT gene pairs were orthologous between buffalo and cattle. Comparative transcriptomic analysis and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) further showed that both AGPAT1 and AGPAT6 were highly expressed in milk samples of buffalo and cattle during lactation. Knockdown of AGPAT1 or AGPAT6 significantly decreased the TAG content of buffalo mammary epithelial cells (BuMECs) and bovine mammary epithelial cells (BoMECs) by regulating lipogenic gene expression (p < 0.05). Knockdown of AGPAT1 or AGPAT6 inhibited proliferation and apoptosis of BuMECs through the expression of marker genes associated with the proliferation and apoptosis (p < 0.05). Our data confirmed that both AGPAT1 and AGPAT6 could regulate TAG synthesis and growth of mammary epithelial cells in buffalo. These findings will have important implications for understanding the role of the AGPAT gene in buffalo milk performance.