© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.The exact immunological mechanisms of post infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) in childhood are not fully known. It has been shown that the inflammasome and IL-18 pathway play important roles in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. We aimed to investigate the role of caspase-1, IL-18, and IL-18 components in PIBO. From January to May 2020, children with PIBO, children with history of influenza infection without PIBO, and healthy children were asked to participate in the study in three pediatric pulmonology centers. Serum caspase-1, IL-18, IL-18BP, IL-18R, and INF-γ levels were measured by ELISA and compared between the 3 groups. There were 21 children in the PIBO group, 16 children in the influenza group, and 39 children in the healthy control group. No differences in terms of age and gender between the 3 groups were found. IL-18 and IL-18BP levels were higher in the healthy control group (p = 0.018, p = 0.005, respectively). IL-18R was higher in the PIBO group (p = 0.001) and caspase-1 was higher in the PIBO and influenza group than the healthy control group (p = 0.002). IFN-γ levels did not differ between the 3 groups. IL-18BP/IL-18 was higher in the influenza group than the PIBO group and the healthy control group (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Caspase-1 level was increased in patients with PIBO which suggests that inflammasome activation may have a role in fibrosis; however, IL-18 level was found to be low. Mediators other than IL-18 may be involved in the inflammatory pathway in PIBO. Further immunological studies investigating inflammasome pathway are needed for PIBO with chronic inflammation.What is Known:• Post infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) is a rare, severe chronic lung disease during childhood which is associated with inflammation and fibrosis which lead to partial or complete luminal obstruction especially in small airways.• The exact immunological mechanisms of PIBO in childhood are not fully known.What is New:• Inflammasome activation persists even years after acute infection and may play a role in fibrosis in PIBO.• Mediators other than IL-18 may be involved in these inflammatory pathway.