The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between energy use,
economic growth, and environmental pollution in Turkey for the period
from 1968 to 2016 by using ARDL bounds test approach. Test findings
show that an increase in economic growth and trade openness cause
environmental degradation in all models. Although the energy
consumption coefficient is positive in all models, it is statistically
significant only in the model where the ecological footprint indicator is the
dependent variable. Thus, while determining a positive relationship
between environmental pollution and economic growth in Turkey, also it
can be said that the energy consumption increases ecological footprint. The
findings indicate that there is a need to consider not only pollution
emissions but also the ecological footprint for environmental degradation.
These results raise a number of policy recommendations for Turkey. The
existence of an inverted-U shaped relationship between environmental
degradation and economic growth actually demonstrate the successful long
run sustainable growth in Turkey.