Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in human stool samples: antibiotic resistance profiles, putative virulence determinants and molecular characterization of the isolates

HIZLISOY H., SAĞIROĞLU P., BAREL M., Dishan A., Gungor C., Koskeroglu K., ...More

World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol.39, no.12, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 39 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11274-023-03786-y
  • Journal Name: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, ABI/INFORM, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Acute gastroenteritis, Campylobacter spp, Human, Multidrug resistance, Virulence genes
  • Kayseri University Affiliated: Yes


Campylobacters, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, have become one of the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis in humans worldwide in recent years. We aimed to investigate the presence, antimicrobial resistance, putative virulence genes, and molecular characterization of C. jejuni and C. coli recovered from human acute gastroenteritis cases in the study. In the study, suspected Campylobacter spp. isolates were obtained in 43 (5%) feces samples collected from a total of 850 patients who applied to the Erciyes University Medical Faculty acute clinic between March 2019 and February 2020. As a result of the phenotypic tests, these isolates were determined to be Campylobacter spp. According to the multiplex PCR, 33 of 43 Campylobacter spp. isolates were identified as C. jejuni (76%) and ten isolates were as C. coli (24%). In the disc diffusion test, the highest resistance rate was found in the trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (90.1%) and ciprofloxacin (90.1%), and the lowest rate was found in the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (9.3%). In Campylobacter spp. isolates, the virulence genes cdtA, virB11, cdtB, cadF, iam, ceu, and flaA were found to be positive at rates of 26 (60%), 28 (65.6%), 13 (30%), 4 (9%), 27 (62%), 17 (39%), and 7 (16%), respectively. However, the cdtC gene was not detected in any of the isolates. The study searched tetO gene to examine the genetic aspect of tetracycline resistance, which was found in all Campylobacter spp. isolates. In the PCR reactions to investigate A2074C and A2075G mutations of macrolide resistance, it was determined as 7 (16%) and 21 (48%) of the isolates. To detect quinolone resistance, the rates of quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) were 20 (45.4%) and the gyrA gene mutations in the mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR (MAMA-PCR), were 19 (43.1%) of isolates. In addition, the quinolone resistance gene (qnr) carried by plasmid in Campylobacter isolates was not found in the study. BlaOXA-61 and CmeB (multi-drug efflux pump) genes were detected as 28 (63.6%) and 30 (68.1), respectively. The Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) used for typing the isolates revealed that the band profiles obtained from the isolates were different. In conclusion, this was a very comprehensive study revealing the presence of antibiotic-resistant C. jejuni and C. coli with various virulence genes in patients admitted to a university hospital with acute gastroenteritis. This is of utmost significance for public health. Since campylobacteria are foodborne, zoonotic pathogens and transmission occurs mostly through food. People should have detailed information about the transmission routes of campylobacteria and risky foods. In addition, staff, food processors and caterers, should be trained in hygiene.