Identification of bioactive molecules from Triphala (Ayurvedic herbal formulation) as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) through computational investigations

Rudrapal M., ÇELİK İ., Khan J., Ansari M. A., Alomary M. N., Yadav R., ...More

Journal of King Saud University - Science, vol.34, no.3, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 34 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jksus.2022.101826
  • Journal Name: Journal of King Saud University - Science
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, zbMATH, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Triphala, Bioactive molecules, Molecular docking, Molecular dynamics simulation, 1,2,4-TRIOXANE DERIVATIVES, M-PRO, DOCKING, PREDICTION, DISCOVERY, DYNAMICS, DESIGN, SERIES, DRUGS, GLIDE
  • Kayseri University Affiliated: No


© 2022 The Author(s)Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV-2) induced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the present worldwide health emergency. The global scientific community faces a significant challenge in developing targeted therapies to combat the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Computational approaches have been critical for identifying potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors in the face of limited resources and in this time of crisis. Main protease (Mpro) is an intriguing drug target because it processes the polyproteins required for SARS-CoV-2 replication. The application of Ayurvedic knowledge from traditional Indian systems of medicine may be a promising strategy to develop potential inhibitor for different target proteins of SARS-CoV-2. With this endeavor, we docked bioactive molecules from Triphala, an Ayurvedic formulation, against Mpro followed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation (100 ns) to investigate their inhibitory potential against SARS-CoV-2. The top four best docked molecules (terflavin A, chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, and corilagin) were selected for MD simulation study and the results obtained were compared to native ligand X77. From docking and MD simulation studies, the selected molecules showed promising binding affinity with the formation of stable complexes at the active binding pocket of Mpro and exhibited negative binding energy during MM-PBSA calculations, indication their strong binding affinity with the target protein. The identified bioactive molecules were further analyzed for drug-likeness by Lipinski's filter, ADMET and toxicity studies. Computational (in silico) investigations identified terflavin A, chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, and corilagin from Triphala formulation as promising inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, suggesting experimental (in vitro/in vivo) studies to further explore their inhibitory mechanisms.