SMALL, vol.19, no.6, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
In the data-driven world, textile is a valuable resource for improving the quality of life through continuous monitoring of daily activities and physiological signals of humans. Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) are an attractive option for self-powered sensor development by coupling energy harvesting and sensing ability. In this study, to the best of the knowledge, scalable fabrication of Ti3C2Tx MXene-embedded polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanocomposite fiber using a thermal drawing process is presented for the first time. The output open circuit voltage and short circuit current show 53% and 58% improvement, respectively, compared to pristine PVDF fiber. The synergistic interaction between the surface termination groups of MXene and polar PVDF polymer enhances the performance of the fiber. The flexibility of the fiber enables the weaving of fabric TENG devices for large-area applications. The fabric TENG (3 x 2 cm(2)) demonstrates a power density of 40.8 mW m(-2) at the matching load of 8 M omega by maintaining a stable performance over 12 000 cycles. Moreover, the fabric TENG has shown the capability of energy harvesting by operating a digital clock and a calculator. A distributed self-powered sensor for human activities and walking pattern monitoring are demonstrated with the fabric.