Acta Radiologica, vol.63, no.9, pp.1270-1275, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
© The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2021.Background: Although there are many studies on percutaneous nephrostomy in urinary obstruction management in pediatric patients, there is a limited number of studies on percutaneous antegrade ureteral stenting (PAUS) on this issue. Purpose: To evaluate the results of fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous antegrade approach for ureteral stent placement through the nephrostomy route in children. Material and Methods: Between October 2005 and June 2019, the medical records of children who underwent PAUS through the nephrostomy route were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data of the patients, technical and clinical success rates, technical details, and complications of the procedure were recorded. Patients were divided and evaluated into groups according to etiology. Categorical data were analyzed by using the Pearson chi-square test. Results: In total, 31 patients (19 boys, 12 girls; age range = 2 months–18 years; mean age = 7.4 ± 6.01 years) and 42 procedures were included in the study. The most common underlying diseases were ureteropelvic junction obstruction (16 stents, 38.1%) and vesicoureteral reflux (13 stents, 31%). The technical and clinical success rates were 97.6% and 90%, respectively. Clinical failure (10%) was not related to gender, underlying diseases, and stent size (P > 0.05). Mean stent dwelling time was 96.43 ± 58.1 days. Complications were urinary tract infection (two procedures), stent migration (two procedures), early occlusion (one procedure), and contrast material leak after balloon dilation (one procedure). The complication rate was 14.6%. No procedure-related death was observed. Conclusion: PAUS through the nephrostomy route in children is an effective and reliable method when surgical treatment is not feasible.