PLANT PROTECTION METHODS IN ORGANIC FARMING


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Bulut S., Arslan M.

Current Trends in Natural Sciences Symposium, Pitesti, Romania, 18 - 20 May 2023, vol.12, no.1223020, pp.183-192

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Volume: 12
  • City: Pitesti
  • Country: Romania
  • Page Numbers: pp.183-192
  • Kayseri University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Today, producers generally aim to increase product quality and diversify, but ultimately increase efficiency. On the other hand, when the negative effects of chemical pollution in nature is in consideration, the producer can’t harvest all of the produced crops, but they harvest the crops that aren’t consumed by diseases and pests. The increasing human movement and trade in the world in the last few hundred years has facilitated the transfer of harmful organisms from one geographical region to another. It is estimated that there are about 20 thousands potentially harmful organisms on the globe today. However, 5 thousands of these are known to be harmful to plants. In Turkey, 6 hundreds of these organisms cause economic damage. However, in 2011, according to the records of the Department of Phytosanitary and Quarantine in the General Directorate of Food and Control (GKGM), it was determined that there were around 470 harmful organisms in Turkey, and 350 of them had technical instructions and were combated. In other words, the number of harmful organisms that threat plant health is generally increasing. Even before there was no Ministry of Agriculture in Turkey, the fight against phylloxera started and the legislation and physical infrastructures were established due to the obligation to fight against pests. However, the last 100 years of pest control studies in plant production have revealed that the fight against harmful organisms is not sustainable when only chemical control measures are taken.  Because faulty or excessive chemical applications sometimes cause irreversible damages to the ecosystems, cultivation areas, water sources, human health and food chains. For this reason, it is needed to include alternative control measures, such as biotechnical and biological controls, perhaps even more so, methods such as genetic control.