© 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.First time in this study, neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects of Pseudevernia furfuracea and Usnea florida lichen extracts based silver decorated zinc oxide nanocomposites (Ag-ZnO NCs) were evaluated. The characteristic light absorption point of P. furfuracea and U. florida based Ag-ZnO NCs were observed at 339 nm and 361 nm; effective diameter was detected at 342 nm and 495 nm. According to SEM analysis, the diameter of P. furfuracea and U. florida extract based NCs were approximately 35 nm and 85 nm, respectively. When we examined the toxicity of SH-SY5Y against human neuroblastoma cells, it was observed that NCs have neurotoxic effects on a concentration of 100 μg/ml. In this study, it was predicted that P. furfuracea and U. florida extract based Ag-ZnO NCs could be used in cytotoxic studies by synthesizing them in a cheap, short time and with eco-friendly method.