Effects of nutritional interventions in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: an overview based on literature review

Nogay N. H., Nahikian-Nelms M.

International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, vol.69, no.6, pp.811-824, 2023 (SSCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 69 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/20473869.2022.2036921
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Psycinfo
  • Page Numbers: pp.811-824
  • Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, nutrition, vitamin, mineral, probiotic, gastrointestinal problems, behavioral problems, children, CASEIN-FREE DIET, VITAMIN-D DEFICIENCY, FREE/CASEIN-FREE DIET, GLUTEN-FREE DIET, DOUBLE-BLIND, KETOGENIC DIET, GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS, YOUNG-CHILDREN, SUPPLEMENTATION, BEHAVIOR
  • Kayseri University Affiliated: No


© The British Society of Developmental Disabilities 2022.Background: Nutrition is important in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Because nutritional problems of children with ASD can lead to nutritional deficiencies and this can also directly or indirectly affect symptoms related to autism. We investigated the effect of diet and supplementation treatments on gastrointestinal, behavioral or sleep problems based on the results of literature review. Methods: We generated four questions based on literature. We carried out title and abstract-based search using the Web of Science database. Of 4580 abstracts were identified, 192 papers were reviewed and 55 papers precisely meeting the inclusion criteria. Results: The studies examining the effects of vitamins, minerals, probiotics, and other supplements on ASD symptoms had different dosages, different treatment durations, small sample sizes and used different scales for evaluation. The results of the studies of the effectiveness of GFCF and ketogenic diet to reduce gastrointestinal, behavioral and sleeping problems in children and adolescents were contradictory. Conclusions: It is not possible to suggest the GFCF and/or ketogenic diet, vitamins, minerals and probiotics to individual with ASD based on the available evidence. By planning a sufficient and balanced diet, it should be aimed to prevent nutrient deficiency and to ensure growth in accordance with the age in children with ASD.