© 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.The identification of agents that can reverse drug resistance in cancer chemotherapy, and enhance the overall efficacy is of great interest. Paclitaxel (PTX) belongs to taxane family that exerts an antitumor effect by stabilizing microtubules and inhibiting cell cycle progression. However, PTX resistance often develops in tumors due to the overexpression of drug transporters and tumor-promoting pathways. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are modulators of many processes in cancer cells, such as apoptosis, migration, differentiation, and angiogenesis. In the present study, we summarize the effects of ncRNAs on PTX chemotherapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can have opposite effects on PTX resistance (stimulation or inhibition) via influencing YES1, SK2, MRP1, and STAT3. Moreover, miRNAs modulate the growth and migration rates of tumor cells in regulating PTX efficacy. PIWI-interacting RNAs, small interfering RNAs, and short-hairpin RNAs are other members of ncRNAs regulating PTX sensitivity of cancer cells. Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) are similar to miRNAs and can modulate PTX resistance/sensitivity by their influence on miRNAs and drug efflux transport. The cytotoxicity of PTX against tumor cells can also be affected by circular RNAs (circRNAs) and limitation is that oncogenic circRNAs have been emphasized and experiments should also focus on onco-suppressor circRNAs.