© 2022 Associacao Medica Brasileira. All rights reserved.OBJECTIVE: Sepsis is a complex and serious medical condition resulting from the activation of an innate host response to infections. The etiology of sepsis is complex and can be influenced by genetic susceptibility. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a possible association of Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1) gene polymorphism with sepsis in a Turkish population. METHODS: The study group consisted of 100 unrelated patients with sepsis and 100 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral leukocytes from EDTA-containing blood using the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit. ROCK1 gene rs35996865 and rs112130712 (Lys1054Arg) polymorphisms were analyzed in genomic DNA using the LightCycler 480 II real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies for ROCK1 gene rs35996865 polymorphism between the patients with sepsis and control group (p>0.05). Additionally, no association was detected between the rs35996865 polymorphism and mortality in the patient group. No polymorphism was detected with ROCK1 gene rs112130712 (Lys1054Arg) in our study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that there is no marked association between the rs35996865 polymorphism and sepsis. Therefore, these results suggest that ROCK1 gene rs35996865 polymorphism is not risk factor for the development of sepsis in the Turkish population.