Reflections of desynchronized neoliberalism in artisanal and small-scale mining: evidence from Zonguldak, Turkey

Kilic S., Ozdemir C., Yavuz K.

EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES AND SOCIETY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol.7, no.4, pp.1385-1391, 2020 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 7 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.exis.2020.08.008
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.1385-1391
  • Keywords: Illegal coal mining, Artisanal and small-scale mining, Turkey, Neoliberalism, Mining temporalities, SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA, ENERGY-PRODUCTION, DEVELOPMENT PARTY, GOLD, GHANA, POLICIES, TEMPORALITIES, PERSPECTIVE, POLITICS, INDUSTRY
  • Kayseri University Affiliated: No


This paper investigates the emergence and spread of illegal artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and explores its dynamics and socio-economic effects in Zonguldak, Turkey. The study is based on field research covering a series of semi-structured in-depth interviews, focus group meetings and on-site observations. We argue that the emergence of illegal ASM in Zonguldak is an outcome of a temporal turn in mining policies in 1980s, namely desynchronized neoliberalism. Desynchronized neoliberalism refers to both the distinct operations of neoliberalism in different landscapes and the temporal and conflicting applications of it in a specific landscape. The non-synchronizations, which are also reflected in the current dynamics of coal extraction, allow the issue to be discussed within a mining temporalities framework. Throughout the paper, the heterogeneity and different temporal regimes of illegal ASM in Zonguldak are discussed. The historicity of mining and its consequences for the mining sector are evaluated, including people's experiences and expectations. Mining temporalities in Zonguldak are found to have both local and global characteristics that show similarities as well as differences with ASM experiences around the globe.