CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS, vol.136, pp.427-440, 2016 (SCI-Expanded)
This study aimed to investigate the role of in situ exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by EPS+ Streptococcus thermophilus strains on physicochemical, rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory properties of ice cream in order to develop a fermented and consequently functional ice-cream in which no stabilizers would be required in ice-cream production. For this purpose, the effect of EPS producing strains (control, strain 1, strain 2 and mixture) and fermentation conditions (fermentation temperature; 32,37 and 42 degrees C and time; 2,3 and 4 h) on pH, S. thermophilus count, EPS amount, consistency coefficient (K), and apparent viscosity (eta(50)) were investigated and optimized using single and multiple response optimization tools of response surface methodology. Optimization analyses indicated that functional ice-cream should be fermented with strain 1 or strain mixture at 40-42 degrees C for 4 h in order to produce the most viscous ice-cream with maximum EPS content. Optimization analysis results also revealed that strain specific conditions appeared to be more effective factor on in situ EPS production amount, K and 1750 parameters than did fermentation temperature and time. The rheological analysis of the ice-cream produced by EPS+ strains revealed its high viscous and pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behavior, which demonstrates potential of S. thermophilus EPS as thickening and gelling agent in dairy industry. FTIR analysis proved that the EPS in ice-cream corresponded to a typical EPS, as revealed by the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amide groups with additional alpha-glycosidic linkages. SEM studies demonstrated that it had a web-like compact microstructure with pores in ice-cream, revealing its application possibility in dairy products to improve their rheological properties. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.