Analyzing the impact of the organization of Turkic states on the foreign trade of member countries

Çetinkaya A. F., DEMİREL N.

Cogent Social Sciences, vol.10, no.1, 2024 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/23311886.2023.2288370
  • Journal Name: Cogent Social Sciences
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Gender Studies Database, Public Administration Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: economic integration, foreign trade, gravity model, multi-criteria decision making, organization of Turkic states, TOPSIS
  • Kayseri University Affiliated: Yes


The foundation of the Organization of Turkic States was established through the creation of the Turkic Speaking Countries Summits, which aimed to strengthen relations among the Turkic states that gained independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Today, the Organization (formerly the Turkic Council) strives to foster cooperation in various fields. One crucial aspect of this cooperation is the development of trade between member countries. This study aims to analyze the Organization’s impact on its members’ foreign trade by examining pre- and post-foundation years’ trade data to assess the cooperative entity’s effectiveness in enhancing trade cooperation among its members. A gravity model was employed to evaluate the significance of other factors influencing bilateral trade among six Turkic states and Tajikistan, such as proximity, income levels, population size, shared borders, and cultural similarity. The results indicate that membership in the Organization positively affects the estimated model. This study discusses the effect of integration on trade relations from a different perspective and provides interpretations. Therefore, the annual foreign trade data of the founding members (Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan) from 2000 to 2019, sourced from the World Bank, were analyzed using the TOPSIS method. In this context, the impact on commercial relations before and after the establishment of the Organization was evaluated based on multiple criteria. Before its establishment, Kazakhstan held the first place in terms of overall trade performance with member countries; however, Turkey replaced it after the creation of this cooperative entity, followed by Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan.