SPRINGERPLUS, vol.5, 2016 (SCI-Expanded)
Resistance of developed bacteria to antibiotic treatment is a very important issue, because introduction of any new antibiotic is after a little while followed by the formation of resistant bacterial isolates in the clinic. The significant increase in clinical resistance to antibiotics is a troubling situation especially in nosocomial infections, where already defenseless patients can be unsuccessful to respond to treatment, causing even greater health issue. Nosocomial infections can be identified as those happening within 2 days of hospital acceptance, 3 days of discharge or 1 month of an operation. They influence 1 out of 10 patients admitted to hospital. Annually, this outcomes in 5000 deaths only in UK with a cost to the National Health Service of a billion pounds. Despite these problems, antibiotic therapy is still the most common method used to treat bacterial infections. On the other hand, it is often mentioned that immune system plays a major role in the progress of infections. In this context, we proposed a mathematical model defining population dynamics of both the specific immune cells produced according to the properties of bacteria by host and the bacteria exposed to multiple antibiotics synchronically, presuming that resistance is gained through mutations due to exposure to antibiotic. Qualitative analysis found out infection-free equilibrium point and other equilibrium points where resistant bacteria and immune system cells exist, only resistant bacteria exists and sensitive bacteria, resistant bacteria and immune system cells exist. As a result of this analysis, our model highlights the fact that when an individual's immune system weakens, he/she suffers more from the bacterial infections which are believed to have been confined or terminated. Also, these results was supported by numerical simulations.