Mitigative effects of chloroquine treatment against hypoxia-induced intestinal injury: a histological and immunohistochemical study Hipoksiye bağlı bağırsak hasarına karşı klorokin tedavisinin hafifletici etkileri: histolojik ve immünohistokimyasal bir çalışma

Creative Commons License

AKİN A. T., KAYMAK E., Öztürk E., Ceylan T., Yalçin B., BAŞARAN K. E., ...More

Turk Hijyen ve Deneysel Biyoloji Dergisi, vol.79, no.1, pp.59-70, 2022 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 79 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.5505/turkhijyen.2022.78476
  • Journal Name: Turk Hijyen ve Deneysel Biyoloji Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.59-70
  • Keywords: Apoptosis, Apoptozis, bağırsak, chloroquine, hipoksi, hypoxia, intestine, klorokuin, TNF-α, TNF-α
  • Kayseri University Affiliated: No


© 2022. All Rights Reserved.Objective: Hypoxia has an important role in the disruption of intestinal mucosal integrity because of inflammation and apoptosis induced by inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a (Tumor necrosis factor-alpha), IL-6 and IFN-y, and apoptotic regulatory proteins. Chloroquine (CLQ) is a drug used in the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and is widely used for the treatment of many inflammatory diseases such as malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we aimed to reduce the destructive effects of hypoxia-induced inflammation and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa of rats with CLQ applications. Methods: For this purpose, a total of 24 Wistar Albino rats were randomly divided into three groups; Group I: Control group (n=8), Group II: Hypoxia (n=8) and Group III: Hypoxia + CLQ (n=8). The control group was housed in plexiglass cages to keep the oxygen levels at 10% levels for 28 days, while the hypoxia and hypoxia+CLQ groups were housed in a normal atmospheric environment (21% O2), and the hypoxia+CLQ group was administered CLQ at a dose of 50 mg/kg every day for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, the intestinal tissues of the experimental animals, were extracted under the anesthesia and they were sacrificed. Results: As a result of histopathological evaluations, it was determined that CLQ applications showed healing properties on the histopathological effects induced by hypoxia in the intestine. While an increase in TNF-α expression was observed in the hypoxia group, a statistically significant decrease was detected in the hypoxia+CLQ group. In addition, Bax expression was found to be statistically significantly lower in the hypoxia+CLQ group when compared to the hypoxia group. On the contrary, it was observed that Bcl-2 expression was statistically significantly increased in the hypoxia+CLQ group compared to the Hypoxia group. Conclusion: We observed that hypoxia causes significant damage to the intestinal mucosa and triggers a severe inflammation that drives cells to apoptosis. Considering the curative effects of chloroquine on the intestinal mucosa, we suggest that this anti-inflammatory drug has a potential to use clinically to alleviate the deleterious effects of hypoxia in the intestine.