© 2022 Elsevier B.V.Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently emerged as a useful class of nanostructures with well-suited characteristics for drug delivery applications, due to the high surface area and pore size for efficient loading. Despite their use as a nano-carrier for controlled delivery of various types of drugs, the inherent osteo-conductive properties have stolen a great attention as a growing area of investigation. Here, we evaluated the double function of UiO-66 MOF structure as a carrier for fosfomycin antibiotic and also as an osteogenic differentiation promoter when introduced in 3D chitosan scaffolds, for the first time. Our results revealed that the wet-spun chitosan scaffolds containing fosfomycin loaded UiO-66 nanocrystals (CHI/UiO-66/FOS) possessed fiber mesh structure with integrated micro-scale fibers and increased mechanical strength. In vitro antibacterial studies indicated that CHI/UiO-66/FOS scaffolds showed bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, the scaffolds were biocompatible to MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts and significantly up-regulated the expression of osteogenesis-related genes and facilitated the extracellular matrix mineralization, in vitro. Taken together, our results demonstrate UiO-66 MOFs can present double functionality and CHI/UiO-66/FOS scaffolds hold a significant potential to be further explored as an alternative approach in treating infected bone defects like osteomyelitis.