The effects of hydrogen enriched natural gas under different engine loads in a diesel engine

Arslan E., Kahraman N.

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.47, pp.12410-12420, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 47
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2021.09.016
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Artic & Antarctic Regions, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, Environment Index, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.12410-12420
  • Kayseri University Affiliated: Yes


© 2021 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLCNatural gas, which is among the alternative fuels, has become widespread in the transportation as it is both economical and environmentally friendly. While the use of natural gas is at a significant level in spark ignition engines, it has not yet been implemented in compression ignition engines (CI) as it worsens combustion due to ignition delay. In CI engines, however, the combustion properties of natural gas (NG) can be improved by adding hydrogen (H2) to NG. This is one of the methods applied to use natural gas in CI engines. In this experimental study, two different volumetric rates of NG and NG/H2 mixtures were added to the combustion air in a CI engine, and engine performance and emissions were examined under different engine loads. The experiments were performed at two different engine speeds, four different engine loads and no-load condition. An engine cylinder pressure of 59.16 bar, which is the closest value to the 59.39 bar obtained in the use of diesel fuel, was obtained at 1500 rpm for “Diesel + NG(500 g/h)” and 59.9 bar (highest values) was obtained for “Diesel + (500 g/h) [80%NG+20%H2]" at 1750 rpm. For “Diesel + NG(250 g/h)” (Mix1) and “Diesel + NG(500 g/h)” (Mix2), as the engine speed increases, at the point where the maximum in-cylinder pressure is obtained occurs further to the right from top dead center (TDC). With the addition of 500 g/h NG, an increase of 4.5% was achieved in the cylinder pressure at full load, while an increase of 6.5% was achieved in the case of using “Diesel + (500 g/h) [80%NG+20%H2]". Although the effect of the NG and NG/H2 mixtures on in-cylinder pressure was small, the fuel consumption and thermal efficiency improved. Substantial improvements in hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were observed with the use of “Diesel + (250 g/h)[80%NG+20%H2]”. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions decreased with speed increase, but no significant differences in terms of CO2 emissions were observed between the mixtures. There was a maximum difference of 15% between the diesel and the mixtures in CO2 emissions. Although there was a decrease in nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels with the increase in engine speed, the lowest NOx emissions of 447.6 ppmvol was observed in “Diesel + NG(250 g/h)” (Mix1) at 1750 rpm at maximum load.