Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press in association with the European Microwave Association.In this paper, equilibrium optimization algorithm (EOA), which is a novel optimization algorithm, is applied to synthesize symmetrical linear antenna array and non-uniform circular antenna array (CAA). The main purpose of antenna array synthesis is to achieve a radiation pattern with low maximum side lobe level (MSL) and narrow half-power beam width (HPBW) in far-field. The low MSL here is an important parameter to reduce interference from other communication systems operating in the same frequency band. A narrow HPBW is needed to achieve high directionality in antenna radiation patterns. Entering the literature as a novel optimization technique, EOA optimally determined the amplitude and position values of the array elements to obtain a radiation pattern with a low MSL and narrow HPBW. The EOA is inspired by models of the control volume mass balance used to predict equilibrium as well as dynamic states. To demonstrate the flexibility and performance of the proposed algorithm, 10-element, 16-element and 24-element linear arrays and eight-element, 10-element and 12-element CAAs are synthesized. The MSL and HPBW values of radiation pattern obtained with the EOA are very successful compared to the results of other optimization methods in the literature.