Background Patients receiving hemodialysis treatment are among the risk groups during the COVID-19 pandemic. They must cope with many factors simultaneously like anxiety about being ill, social isolation, inadequate information about protective precautions, and the need to attend regular treatment. Objectives This study was performed with the aim of determining problems experienced by individuals receiving hemodialysis treatment during the pandemic. Design This was a descriptive and cross-sectional type study. Participants The research included 234 patients receiving chronic hemodialysis treatment. Measurements For collection of data in the research, a patient descriptive information form and COVID-19 phobia scale (CP19-S) scale were used. Results Patients receiving hemodialysis treatment were determined to have high levels of compliance with individual precautions required during the pandemic. Of patients, 87.6% were determined to experience concern about bringing infection from the dialysis unit to family members. The mean total points for CP19-S were 59.80 +/- 14.49. Patients who were female, had low educational level, were not employed, had heart disease in addition to kidney failure, with hemodialysis age from 6 to 8 years, who did not want to go to the dialysis center and had not received education about the pandemic (p < 0.001) were identified to have high phobia at statistically significant levels. Conclusions Changes occurring in normal life and to hemodialysis treatment during the pandemic cause concern and anxiety in many patients. In this process, providing patients with education about the pandemic and protective methods is very important.