The 5th International Conference on Alternative Fuels, Energy & Environment (ICAFEE 2021): Future and Challenges, Kayseri, Turkey, 16 - 18 October 2021, pp.552-553
Alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and butanol are fascinating alternative fuels for internal
combustion engines because of their high-octane number, oxygenated fuel structure, and liquid form. The
toxicity and poor energy density of methanol make it difficult to use in internal combustion engines.
Methanol is currently produced mostly from natural gas or coal by gasification, followed by methanol
synthesis. As a result, biomass-derived ethanol and butanol are better candidates for use in compression
ignition engines. This lignocellulosic biomass can be used production of both ethanol and butanol as a green
pathway. Therefore, ethanol and n-butanol were chosen to blend with diesel for this study.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of blending modified diesel fuel with graphene plates and
alcohols on combustion behavior, performance, and emissions characteristics. In this study, ethanol and nbutanol,
were blended with diesel. The fraction of each alcohol was 10 percent volume basis, and diesel
was 80% (v/v). Moreover, 50 ppm graphene nanoplates (GPs) were mixed with diesel to obtain modified
fuel. Lastly, hydrogen was also fed through the intake manifold as dual fuel mode as 15 g per hour. The
diesel engine was loaded for different conditions as 25, 50, 75, and 100% load for each tested fuel.
The brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of diesel-alcohols fuel increased by 0.5%; likewise, the brake specific
fuel consumption was raised by 5.2% compared to diesel at the full load condition. It is because the fuel
calorific value decreased when the diesel, ethanol, and n-butanol were blended. Furthermore, when
modified fuel with 50 ppm GPs was used, the BTE was improved only 1.1%. However, the remarkable
improvement was obtained to be an 18.6% increase of BTE using modified fuel and alcohols. In the dual
fuel mode, adding H2 was also increased BTE by 19.4% in comparison to diesel fuel.
In the term of emissions, the blended diesel and alcohol fuel was reduced CO and CO2 by 35.9 and 2.3%,
respectively compared to diesel under the full load condition while HC and NO emissions were increased
by 19.6 and 13.8%. However, using modified fuel and alcohol was remarkably decreased CO, HC, and CO2
emission by 32.1, 4.4, and 0.1% according to diesel emissions. In addition, the emission of dual fuel mode
was also decreased by 20.5, 28.3, and 2.8% for CO, HC, and CO2 respectively whereas NO emission was
increased by 13.8% compared to diesel at the full load.All in all, the experimental study revealed that modified fuel showed better combustion behaviors,
performance, and emissions in comparison to diesel fuel. Further, the same trend was observed when
alcohols mixture with modified fuel was used.