Looking fram Agra Fort to the Taj Mahal: Musamman Burj and Palace Agra Kalesi’nden Tac Mahal’e Seyir: Müsemmen Burç ve Sarayı

Kaya F. Ö.

Art-Sanat Dergisi, vol.18, no.18, pp.219-242, 2022 (ESCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 18 Issue: 18
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.26650/artsanat.2022.18.983211
  • Journal Name: Art-Sanat Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.219-242
  • Keywords: Mughal Empire, Mughal Architecture, Agra, Shah Jahan, Musamman Burj
  • Kayseri University Affiliated: No


© 2022 by the Author(s).Baburids (Mughals) reigned in India for about three centuries, and they revealed unique buildings because of the mixture of their own culture and background and the local culture. In this period, “Jharokha-i Darshan,” meanly “Shah Bastions,” which had not been seen in Turkish – Islamic architecture before, were built. When these buildings are examined, it is understood that there is an influence of Hindu tradition. Firstly, the Shah Burj in Agra Fort, Musamman Burj, which is known commonly, was built, and it became an example for the Shah Bastions in other Mughal forts with its architecture and decorative features. Shah bastions were built for the rulers due to their strategic locations. Shah Jahan built a palace for his wife Mumtaz Mahal attached to Musamman Burj, and he expressed this in Padshahnama clearly. However, the intertwining of the palace and the Burj made it inevitable the spread of the mistake that not Musamman Palace, but Musamman Burj was built for Mumtaz Mahal. In addition, another important point of Musamman Burj and Palace is that Shah Jahan was held captive here by his son Aurangzeb. Contrary to general belief, it was not a prison but the harem room where Shah Jahan lived with Mumtaz Mahal in his reign and the place from where he could see the Taj Mahal even on his deathbed. This research was conducted through the period’s resources (travels and miniatures), especially through Akbarnama and Padshahnama, current research studies and literature review field study. Thus, the place and importance of the construction period, intended purpose, and architectural and decorative features of Musamman Burj and Musamman Palace in Mughal period architecture have been presented in this study, which has an original theme.