© 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.Anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) frequently causes painful peripheral neuropathy; however, no medication has been shown to be effective in the treatment of this debilitating side effect. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of two different doses of allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on PTX-induced mechanical allodynia and spinal cytokine levels and their localization to target tissues such as the spinal cord and sciatic nerve. After the development of mechanical allodynia with repeated PTX administration, two different doses of rat BM-MSCs, low or high (1 × 106–5 × 106), were transplanted into rats and the evaluation continued for 30 days. Interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-10 levels in spinal cord samples of animals were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PTX-induced mechanical allodynia was relieved significantly 15 days after the transplantation of high-dose of BM-MSCs. Both MSCs doses were effective in alleviating allodynia, but the onset of effect was earlier with the high dose. High-dose of BM-MSCs significantly decreased spinal IL-1β and TNF-α levels compared to the PTX group. Fluorescent dye-labeled BM-MSCs were observed much more frequently in the sciatic nerve and spinal cord samples of the high-dose BM-MSCs transplanted group than in the low-dose group animals. In conclusion, we found that the antiallodynic effects of BM-MSCs appeared earlier when high-dose of cells were administered. We think that other mechanisms may play a role in the effects of MSCs, besides localization to damaged tissues and reducing spinal inflammatory cytokine levels. We show that BM-MSCs can be a novel approach in PTX-induced mechanical allodynia.