Risk Perceptions of a Mixed-Image Destination: The Case of Turkey's First-Time Versus Repeat Leisure Visitors

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Karamustafa K., Fuchs G., Reichel A.

Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, vol.22, no.3, pp.243-268, 2013 (Scopus) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/19368623.2011.641709
  • Journal Name: Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.243-268
  • Keywords: mixed destination image, destination risk perception, first time versus repeat visitors, Turkey, TOURISM DESTINATION, BEHAVIORAL LOYALTY, DETERMINANTS, SATISFACTION, QUALITY, MODEL
  • Kayseri University Affiliated: No


The purpose of this study is twofold: first, to investigate tourists' perception of risk about Turkey as a mix image destination and second, to examine if perceived risk of Turkey as a tourism destination differs between first-time and repeat visitors. The findings of the study indicated six risk dimensions as perceived by tourists visited Turkey: (a) time and social risk, (b) financial risks, (c) physical risks, (d) pressing situation risk, (e) experience-related risk, and (f) weather and hotel risk. Descriptive findings suggest that perceived risk of Turkey as a tourism destination was low in spite of some possible risk patterns due to its mixed image. Significant differences were found between first-time and repeat visitors in terms of destination risk perceptions. The study offers practical and theoretical implications for tourism marketing and managing risk in mixed image tourism destinations.