2nd International Eurasian Mycology Congress (EMC’2019),, Konya, Turkey, 6 - 09 September 2019, pp.155
Cladonia is one of the most common lichen species, which is widely distributed across all continents and includes
more than 400 species worldwide. The genus Cladonia is divided into different groups that have been studied by many
researchers in terms of phylogenetics. Although Cladonia is one of the most studied macrolichen species, it is known that
some species of Cladonia are morphologically variable species. Recent studies based on molecular characters have
confirmed this. The high morphological variability of Cladonia species is probably an effect of phenotypic plasticity caused
by factors such as exposure to light, temperature or moisture. C. coniocraea and C. ochrochlora in the Cladonia gracilis
group are systematically confused with each other. Samples were collected in field studies conducted in different regions
of our country. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of the samples examined under microscope were determined.
The characters used to distinguish the species in the group include: the presence of a partially sorediate or fully cortical
podetia, the width of the podetial wall, the presence of squamules in the podetium, the presence of scyphi and diameters,
and the color of the podetial base. In this group, the secondary metabolites are relatively uniform, most species containing
only fumarprotocetraric acid. DNA isolations of the samples were performed. A phylogenetic tree based on ITS sequences
was constructed. Species restriction in the Cladonia gracilis group is known to be difficult due to the morphological
variability of taxa. Morphological, anatomical and ecological differences of C. coniocraea and C. ochrochlora species were
determined. Molecular differences in its sequence analysis are also shown in the tree.