© 2022 Associacao Medica Brasileira. All rights reserved.OBJECTIVE: Acute appendicitis represents one of the most common causes of acute intra-abdominal emergencies worldwide. In this case-control study, we aimed to investigate associations of Rho-kinase gene expression and polymorphisms with acute appendicitis in a Turkish population. We also aimed to study the effects of gender on these parameters. METHODS: A total of 93 unrelated patients with acute appendicitis and 93 healthy controls in the Department of Emergency Medicine, Erciyes University, between June 2019 and June 2021 were included in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral leukocytes, and the LightCycler 480 II real-time polymerase chain reaction was utilized to detect Rho-kinase1 gene rs35996865 and Rho-kinase2 gene rs2230774 (Thr431Asn) polymorphisms. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to determine Rho-kinase1 and Rho-kinase2 gene expressions. RESULTS: There was a marked increase in Rho-kinase1, but not in Rho-kinase2, mRNA expression, and this increase was evident only in male patients (p=0.0008). No significant differences were found in allele and genotype frequencies for Rho-kinase1 gene rs35996865 and Rho-kinase2 gene rs2230774 polymorphisms between the patients with acute appendicitis and the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Our data imply that Rho-kinase1 (rs35996865) and Rho-kinase2 (rs2230774) gene variants are not risk factors for the development of acute appendicitis in the Turkish population. However, increased mRNA expression of the Rho-kinase1 gene in males indicated that Rho-kinase1 is involved in the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis in a gender-specific way.