The impacts of renewable energy production, economic growth, and economic globalization on CO<sub>2</sub> emissions: evidence from Fourier ADL co-integration and Fourier-Granger causality test for Turkey

DUMRUL Y., BİLGİLİ F., DUMRUL C., Kılıçarslan Z., Rahman M. N.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.30, no.41, pp.94138-94153, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 41
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-023-28800-6
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.94138-94153
  • Keywords: CO2 emissions, Economic globalization, Economic growth, Fourier causality test, Fourier co-integration test, Renewable energy production
  • Kayseri University Affiliated: Yes


Along with the growth and globalization of the whole world economy since the First Industrial Revolution, the production and use of fossil fuels have led to increased CO2 emissions and, ultimately, significant environmental degradation. The impact of globalization, economic growth, and renewable energy sources on CO2 may show trends with different turning points in developing countries, and estimations may need to follow Fourier-type functions to capture the frequency domain. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the effects of renewable energy production, economic globalization, and economic growth on CO2 emissions for Turkey in the period 1971-2006 with Fourier autoregressive distribution lag (ADL) cointegration, DOLS, and Fourier-Granger causality tests. The originality of this study is the estimation of a model of CO2 emissions with a Fourier-type function for the first time. The findings indicate a negative relationship between renewable energy production and CO2 emissions and a positive relationship between economic globalization and economic growth and CO2 emissions. In addition, according to the empirical results, there exists a one-way causality relationship between economic globalization to CO2 and economic globalization to renewable energy production, and there is evidence of a bidirectional causality relationship between economic globalization and economic growth in this study.