© 2022 The Authors. Bioengineering & Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) are commonly used for drug delivery because of their favored biocompatibility and suitability for sustained and controlled drug release. To prolong NP circulation time, enable target-specific drug delivery and overcome physiological barriers, NPs camouflaged in cell membranes have been developed and evaluated to improve drug delivery. Here, we discuss recent advances in cell membrane-coated PLGA NPs, their preparation methods, and their application to cancer therapy, management of inflammation, treatment of cardiovascular disease and control of infection. We address the current challenges and highlight future research directions needed for effective use of cell membrane-camouflaged NPs.