© 2022 Elsevier GmbHIntroduction: Chronic renal failure (CRF) patients use many complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practices to manage their symptoms. This research was conducted descriptively to determine the relationship between the attitudes of peritoneal dialysis patients toward holistic CAM and their health literacy (HL) levels. Methods: The study was conducted with 91 peritoneal dialysis patients who were treated in the adult peritoneal dialysis unit of a university, who met the study inclusion criteria and who agreed to participate. Data were collected using a survey form, the Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ) and the Health Literacy Scale (HLS). Ethics committee approval, institutional permission and informed consent of the participants were obtained. Results: It was observed that 72.5% of peritoneal dialysis patients used CAM, and the mean HCAMQ score was 24.03 ± 7.94. Moreover, 76.9% of the patients implementing CAM used herbal methods, with 92.3% prefering CAM to strengthen immunity. In addition, 63.6% patients did not inform healthcare personnel about their CAM use. In the present study, the mean HLS score of peritoneal dialysis patients was 102.88 ± 21.06, and a statistically significant and negative correlation was observed between the mean HCAMQ and HLS scores (r = -0.240; p < 0.05). Patients who reported their use of CAM to their healthcare personnel had higher HLS scores than those who did not. Perceived health status had a significant effect on both HCAMQ and HLS. Conclusion: The majority of peritoneal dialysis patients included in the study used CAM, and their attitudes toward CAM use were positive. Most of the patients did not report the use of CAM to healthcare personnel. The HL levels of the patients were high. A positive attitude toward HCAMQ increased as the HLS level increased.