Frontiers in Energy Research, vol.10, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Copyright © 2022 Kocer, Onen, Ustun and Albayrak.The recent developments in electric vehicles (EVs) causes several issues that have not been satisfactorily addressed. One of the foremost problems is the charging–discharging processes of EV batteries with diverse characteristics. Although a charging station is the first choice in this regard, a battery swap station (BSS) is also a suitable alternative solution as it eliminates long waiting periods and battery degradation due to fast charging. BSS has the capability to ensure prompt and efficient service for electric vehicles. Since BSS has a large number of battery systems, optimum planning of the charging–discharging operations of the batteries is critical for both BSS and the grid. This study presents an optimal charging–discharging schedule for multiple BSSs based on the swap demand of privately owned EVs and electric bus (EB) public transportation system. In addition, BSSs reinforce the power grid by providing ancillary services such as peak shaving and valley filling with demand response programs. In order to increase the flexibility of the operation, the mobile swapping station (MSS) concept, an innovative and dynamic service, is introduced to the literature and added to the model. The results indicate that BSS is an essential agent in the ancillary services market and the MSS concept is a yielding solution for both BSSs and power networks. Last, the data utilized in the study for swap demand calculation and power grid analysis are real-world data from Berlin, Germany.